Chapter 22 -- Start of the New Millennium

The second administration of President Carey continued resolving the problems of America. The vast energies of the nations were finally mobilized. Astonishing progress was made in every area. Well-functioning educational systems in every level and nearly every locality were turning out the kind of graduates that were needed in the economy and society. The national health insurance system succeeded in raising life expectancy and other indicators of public health to the highest standards of the industrialized world. Crime rates were continuing to decline drastically. A tremendous renewal of cities and the transportation infrastructure was creating full employment. Ongoing automation in manufacturing and services made America fully competitive in international trade. But the competition's main purpose was to reach efficiency, not to gain advantage over other countries.

The Grand Moral Strategy and its supporting World Development Plan was making excellent progress internationally. The continuing de-armament of nearly every country had a tremendous effect on reducing violence among ethnic groups, nationalities and other tribal groupings. The conflict prevention, conflict resolution and conflict abatement activities of the World Peace Force were becoming increasingly successful. Refugees from violence were resettled. The end of violence in most countries also ended the famines and malnutrition. A veritable flood of information and knowledge spread across all the continents and locations of the planet. This knowledge could be used to increase productivity in agriculture, manufacturing and trade. Development aid, corporate investments, bank loans provided the capital for the market economies of the countries. Unhampered by government intervention, entrepreneurs created new products and satisfied the needs of the consumers in their countries.

Paul knew that the world was becoming a governable place. His super-optimum solutions and peace confederations were eliminating trouble spots and were bringing together previously hostile nations. A world governance entity was becoming feasible. The United States and its allies were still carrying the brunt of the burden of creating a warless world. But it was becoming necessary to give up the mission, and make the special tasks become part of a governing entity.

The United Nations should have become this body. But it was still premature to assign world governance to a federated body of individual countries. With all the improvements in the economies and societies of the Third World, there was still too much of a gap between the most and the least prosperous parts of the world. What was needed was a governing entity functioning on the global level, but without the full powers of a federation. Paul picked up the idea of a World Authority from a political scientist of the '80s

The Establishment of a World Authority:
Working Hypothesis (1980)

The World Authority would be a new international institution, designed to facilitate the transition to a peaceful world. Requiring only a partial transfer of power, it will allow maintenance of the nation-state system of international relations, yet will provide a safe way of gradually abolishing war and build a more equitable world economic order.

Present day global disorders are symptoms of the incapacity of existing international arrangements to contain and mediate tensions. The United Nations is not equipped to deal with world economic and political problems. Proposals for a world government through extension of U.N. powers or through a newly created World Parliament are unrealistic because they require the dissolution of the nation-state, which is unacceptable to most countries. A new social institution, carefully designed to overcome legitimate concerns, would be best equipped to handle the global problems of war and militarism, uneven economic development, environmental deterioration and the like.

The World Authority will be the culmination and logical outcome of the U.S. Grand Moral Strategy. The World Development Plan will set the stage for global economic, social and political development. The emergence of national Peace Forces and the several Peace Confederations will facilitate conflict resolution functions. A supra-national World Peace Force and a World Tribunal will secure voluntary compliance with the decisions of the World Authority. Substantial resources, made available by eliminating the arms race, can be applied to solve global environmental, population and resource problems.

The World Authority would require that the nation-state system should be maintained. Only a partial transfer of power would be made to the new institution. It could only operate effectively within its limited area of competence, dealing mostly with the abolition of war and militarism, and continuing the World Development Plan.

Existing agencies of the United Nations and other supra-national organizations -- such as the Universal Postal Union -- will be used as much as possible, supplemented by an international Peace Force raised from national contingents. Member nation-states will contribute funds, labor and other resources for executing global projects, economic development and peacekeeping activities.

A new legal framework would be developed, to delimit the authority and power of the World Authority. The World Tribunal would settle disputes, again under carefully safeguarded limit

Paul visualized the World Authority as a global planning and management organization, using only powers delegated to it by the countries of the world. To ensure that it did not abuse it powers, it was to have no enforcement power, other than voluntary compliance. To control vestiges of international terrorism, drug running and other criminal activities, it needed a police force. However, this police force was only to be armed with non-lethal weapons. These were adequate in battling small groups of terrorists or criminals, but could never impose their will against entire countries or sizeable ethnic groups.

Paul assigned a special task force to plan the World Authority. This was to be the culmination of his life mission of abolishing war. The World Authority was to institutionalize the progress made to date. There was also a possibility that American would become tired of the responsibilities of a hyperpower. There were too many opportunities and challenges at home. Also the exploration of space beckoned to adventurous spirits. As other countries were becoming increasingly developed economically and politically, they started to chafe under the continuing leadership of the United States. It was time to move into new directions, to maintain the gains and continue the progress toward a Warless World.

A fitting culmination of the Grand Moral Strategy was the Year 2000 Celebrations. The previous millenarian traditions were highly pessimistic. In the year 1000 all of Europe was seized by a dread of the end of the world. In this century, during the early '90s again doomsayers predicted that the second millennium will initiate a nuclear Armageddon allegedly prophesied in the Bible. But the prophets of dire events were confounded by the success of the New Transformation and the Grand Moral Strategy. Instead of the nuclear Holocaust the Warless World 2000 was becoming a reality. A common mindset was emerging throughout the world, focused on the reality of one global tribe of humanity. A new society was emerging world wide, characterized by compassion yet planned rationally. Although it was still far from a Utopia, it did carry within it the potential of a humanity carefully managing its planetary environment. The few hesitating steps taken to the exploration of the Solar System promised a gradual emergence into the Galaxy, and the mastery of the secrets of the Universe.

The tremendous progress made in human affairs during the last decade of the century astonished even Paul. He was only a catalyst of the events. The real hero was the American nation, whick had both the potential and cumulative wisdom for world leadership. The values of democracy, the pragmatism of a free people, the models of genuine heroes to follow all contributed to the success of the Grand Moral Strateg

The reality of the world situation and the promise of the future called for celebrations of the New Millennium. And there was much to celebrate. Most of the goals of Warless World 2000 were achieved. Hunger was eliminated throughout the world. Public health was greatly improved, with child mortality reduced to the lowest levels ever. Weapons of mass destruction were totally eliminated. Conventional weapons were greatly reduced, and were only maintained as territorial defense forces. The abolition of war nearly became a reality, as the Non-Lethal and Peace Forces became the primary components of the New Model Armies remaining. Careful remedial attention paid to the causes of past wars -- poverty, ethnic and cultural rivalries, political mismanagement -- almost completely eliminated terrorism and other forms of violence. To most of humanity, the person advocating violence became an outlaw, not to be tolerated but to be arrested and rehabilitated. Most of the ravages caused to the environment were restored. Balanced, sustainable policies were established for energy and natural resources usage. Information and knowledge was poured into millions of human brains, each adding to productivity in industry, agriculture and the providing of services. A strengthened United Nations with its specialized agencies was performing some of the functions of a world government.

The celebrations were many all over the world. Nations, countries, religious organizations, ethnic and tribal groups, professions, cities and other communities celebrated in many different ways. Festivals, artistic performances, music, dancing, carnivals, exhibits -- every form of celebration and rejoicing resounded throughout the world. And everywhere people could share through the television networks that linked all of humanity together. The celebrations indeed welded humanity together as never before. The E Pluribus Unum vision that cemented together the American nation now was becoming the reality of a unified humanity as well.

In his position as Secretary of Peace and one of the initiators of the new abolition Paul was expected to participate in many of the festivities. With all the pleasurable occasions it was a fatiguing task. He was happy when it was finally over, and he could return to regular life.

The only remaining task Paul visualized for his war abolishing efforts was the establishing and implementing of the World Authority.


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